Underpinning The Existing No. 1 Subway Line At The World Trade Center
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Jan 1, 2008
The World Trade Center (WTC) is located on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, approximately 0.5 miles north of Wall Street, and is owned and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PA). As part of the WTC site redevelopment the New York City Transit Authority?s No. 1 subway line which runs through the site below grade, was underpinned so that the soil beneath it could be removed along with the rest of the new east basement excavation. Consequently a scheme comprising micropile installation through and around the existing subway box was designed. The subway had to remain in use throughout save for planned weekend outages to allow a portion of the underpinning to be fitted through or on to the existing structure. At times this involved accessing and drilling from within the subway tunnel under short General Order (GO) Subway shutdown periods. At either end of the subway passage through the WTC site jet grout underpinning was designed to provide support and to complete the excavation and construction of the east basement wall in the areas beneath the subway where it was impossible to install a slurry wall. The jet grout blocks thus formed had to be largely installed around the clock during 53 hour long GO weekend outages and had to overcome severe logistical constraints in and over the tunnel. The jet grout blocks had to provide strengths of at least 500 psi at 3 days and 700 psi at 28 days. The jet grouted soil mass also had to have a level of permeability less than 0.03 feet/day (1 x 10-7 m/s). After an extensive trial program and then production testing it was concluded that the glacial till above the rock proved to be a particularly difficult soil strata to collect test data from and hence the level of observational monitoring was increased to progress the excavation works. Throughout the installation of micropiles and jet grout columns extensive monitoring was in place and prompted a variety of working method changes. The work described in this paper was performed by the Nicholson Construction Company/EE Cruz Joint Venture.