Driven Piles In Glacial Deposits Exhibiting Time Dependent Capacity

Karna, Upendra L.
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 10
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2006
The pile capacity gain with time evaluated and implemented for the construction of the Route 21 Viaduct in Newark, NJ, U.S.A is discussed in this paper. The project consisted of the replacement of more than 3.2 km of viaduct and ramps. The project site consists of thick residual materials deposited by the Wisconsin Glacier over sedimentary rocks. The upper portion is glacial-lacustrine deposit underlain by marginal morainic till and stratified drift. Subsurface investigations identified significant variations in layer thickness and grain size consistency. The site was characterized into 4 Soil types, based on subsurface soil behavior. Closed end 600 mm and 450 mm diameter driven pipe piles were used for the foundation. Loading tests conducted during an advanced construction contract, established that a significant soil set-up could be expected. For the first construction contract, a pilot loading test program consisting of 112 dynamic loading tests and 77 re-strikes (at 2 to 4 weeks) using the PDA (Pile Driving Analyzer) with CAPWAP (Case Pile Wave Analyses Program) was conducted to establish the soil set-up behavior. Nine (9) quick static loading tests were conducted to substantiate the long-term pile capacity. Based on the loading test results, average set-up factors were established and utilized for developing production pile driving criteria. Bearing resistance with depth was analyzed and reviewed. The set-up factors varied significantly, ranging from 1.05 to 1.89, and averaged about 1.30. Conclusions are derived. Set-up factors behavior for each soil type plotted by linear regression are presented and discussed. An appropriate set-up with time relationship for a glacial soil is suggested.
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